"Regulation of brain plasticity: role of inhibitory circuits"黄仕勇 博士(Johns Hopkins University)-2014.8.7
报告题目：Regulation of brain plasticity: role of inhibitory circuits
报告人：黄仕勇 博士 Johns Hopkins University
报告人简介：2006年于中国科学院获得神经生物学博士后，赴美国约翰.霍普金斯大学作博士后研究，目前为约翰.霍普金斯大学Mind/Brain 研究所Associate research scientist。黄博士的研究内容包括：1、啮齿类动物发育过程中视觉皮层的抑制性神经环路的变化；2、内源性大麻素对视觉皮层中抑制性传导的成熟与复壮的作用机理研究；3、视觉皮层门控突触可塑性的神经调节假说；4、利用光遗传学和化学遗传学方法在体研究眼优势柱可塑性的神经调控机理。其多篇研究成果发表于Neuron , Journal of neuroscience等一流学术杂志。
报告简介：The synaptic connections between excitatory neurons are plastic, which underlies learning, memory andbrain development. Critical periods for experience-dependent plasticity have been reported in many brain areas and are thought to be crucial for the normal development of central nervous system. A fundamental question that remains in the field is what mechanisms control the initiation and termination of the critical period. An attractive candidate is the maturation of GABAergic inhibitory circuits. The current general hypothesis is that a developmental increase in the strength of inhibition constrains the plasticity of excitatory synapses. My research has focused on the development of the input and output connectivity of the so called fast-spiking interneurons, the most abundant cortical GABAergic cells. My work revealed that endocannabinoids control the maturation of GABAergic efficacy and connectivity during the critical period. Excitatory synapses driving onto fast-spiking cells also play a crucial role in the initiation of the critical period. Furthermore, based on the GABAergic regulation rule, my work showed that two strategies could successfully reopen the critical period of brain plasticity in adult. One is the reduction of inhibitory output by long-term dark exposure. The other is direct enhancement of synaptic plasticity between excitatory neurons by neuromodulators. Understanding the regulation of brain plasticity provides essential insight for translational developments, such as therapeutics in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders.